TANZANIA: Child Rights References in the Universal Periodic Review

Summary: A compilation of extracts featuring child-rights issues from the reports submitted to the Universal Periodic Review. There are extracts from the 'National Report', the 'Compilation of UN Information' and the 'Summary of Stakeholder's Information'. Also included is the final report and the list of accepted and rejected recommendations.

Tanzania - 12th Session - 2011
3rd October, 3pm to 6pm

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National Report

UN Compilation
NGO Compilation
Accepted and Rejected Recommendations

National Report

Apart from the legal framework provided under the two Constitutions, there are other laws specifically aimed at protecting human rights Annexture on National Law. The national normative framework in which human rights are protected consists also of the ratified international human rights instruments by Tanzania. These include; the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966, Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural rights 1966, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination 1965, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 1985, Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1990 and its two Optional Protocols and the Convention on the Rights of the People with Disabilities, 2007 and its Optional Protocol. Applicable international humanitarian law include; the Four Geneva Conventions of 1949ii , the two 1977 Optional protocolsiii and the Optional protocol to the CRC on Involvement of children in armed conflict.

The Government has continued to implement the National Action Plan on Care Services, Training and Protection for Vulnerable Children. In 2009, vulnerable children were identified in 85 Local Authority Councils compared to 81 in 2008. A total of 746,183 children were identified up to 2009, of which 388,015 were boys and 358,168 were girls. A total of 390 people with disabilities completed vocational and entrepreneurship training program in government colleges in 2009 compared to 305 people in 2008.iv Similarly, in Zanzibar a Disability Policy was adopted in 2004, recognising disability as a human rights issue and in 2006 "The Persons with Disabilities (Rights and Privileges) Act no. 9 of 2006" was approved.v The Plan of Action for the African Decade of Persons with Disabilities 1999-2009, recently extended to 2019, has been signed by Tanzania. There is a National Disability Mainstreaming Strategy for the implementation of the African Decade that has been developed in 2011.

The Government has ratified the CRC and its two Optional Protocols. In 2009 the Parliament enacted the Law of the Child Act for purposes of domesticating the CRC. The Act consolidates all the laws relating to children, promotion and protection of the welfare of a child. Children's rights are proclaimed in various Policies such as the Child Development Policy, Health Policy and the Employment Policy. Moreover, UNICEF is working with the Government to strengthen child protection systems in order to reduce violence against children in Tanzania. It has supported, training programmes for Police officers who manage the children gender desks. This has resulted into swift handling of cases as the police have become more sensitive towards children issues. NGOs also work closely in outreach programmes such as awareness raising and legal aid. The Government is also implementing the Legal Sector Reform Programme which addresses issues related to juvenile justice. In Zanzibar, the Bill on the Rights of the Child has already been passed by the House of Representatives and awaits Presidential assent.

24. The Government has taken initiatives in providing health services. In 2008, the Mental Health Act was enacted for purposes of providing for the care, protection, treatment and management of the persons with mental disorders. It also enacted the Public Health Act of 2009 in order to promote, preserve and maintain public health. The Government in collaboration with various stakeholders has continued to implement Primary Health Care Service Development Programme. Efforts are directed towards reducing maternal and child mortality. Health facilities increased to 6,385 in 2009 compared to 5,901 facility centres in 2008, equivalent to an increase of 7.6 percent. Out of these, Government owned 292 hospitals, 431 health centres and 3,526 dispensaries while parastatals owned 15 hospitals, 41 health centres and 189 dispensaries. Private and charity organizations owned 163 hospitals, 265 health facilities and 1,477 dispensaries.

According to the President's Malaria Initiative, there are an estimated 60,000 annual malaria deaths in Tanzania, with 80 percent of those being children under 5. Moreover, 14 to 18 million clinical malaria cases are reported to public health authorities in Tanzania each year. The Government is committed to eliminating malaria by 2015. It has undertaken to distribute over 49 million mosquito nets to malaria prone regions of Tanzania including the most densely populated urban areas. The government will also begin using DDT insecticide to spray mosquito breeding grounds to help eliminate the disease. The Government in collaboration with USAID is revising national guidelines for malaria treatment during pregnancy and strengthening health services for pregnant women. The under five catch-up campaign aimed at distributing 7.2 million mosquito nets country wide, had helped to accelerate the decline in infant deaths from malaria.vi

A fundamental objective and principle of State policy is the recognition of the right to education.vii The National Education Act of 1978 and the Zanzibar Education Act, 1982 provide for compulsory primary education for every child who has reached seven years.viii The Education Sector Development Program 2000-2015 aims at providing compulsory primary and secondary education to everyone by 2015. Tanzania has succeeded by more than 95 per cent in attaining this goal through the Millennium Development Goals Program.ix

Tanzania received a United Nations award for meeting the millennium development goal on universal primary education five years ahead of the 2015 deadline.

Tanzania has domesticated the CRC by enacting the Right of the Child Act.

66. Despite measures taken by the Government, Gender Based Violence and Violence against Children persists. Currently there is the Sexual Offences Act, which addresses sexual forms of violence and the Penal Code which provides for the offences of assault and battery in relation to domestic violence. Another contributing factor is the customary practice of FGM.x The Government is implementing a National Plan of Action on Violence against women which include FGM. Other measures include: awareness campaigns such as the "Say No to Violence" campaign launched by the President of the United Republic of Tanzania, establishment of Gender desks at the police stations,xi formation of a National Multi Sectoral Committee on Violence against Women and establishment of the National Gender Based Violence Committee in Zanzibar.

67. Tanzania has made little progress in the area of maternal and child mortality. Reports indicates that maternal mortality has significantly decreased from 578 deaths per 100,000 live birthsxii and child mortality has decreased from a rate of 137 deaths per 1000 live births to 81 deaths per 1000 live births for children under five and from 88 to 51 deaths per 1000 live births for infants.

68. Street Children is a growing prevalence in Tanzania due to poverty, deficient education, insecurity and lack of basic needs, psychological and parental care.

Despite achievements recorded in the education sector, overcrowding in classrooms, inadequate facilities, insufficient number of skilled teachers in both Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar and school dropouts in the early years continue to add to the already existing problem of illiteracy.

Child Labour is one of the most serious challenges facing children in Tanzania. This is most prevalent in domestic services as well as agricultural and mining sectors. The Government has taken initiatives in order to combat this problem. These include; legislative and policy measures, awareness campaigns and implementation of the 2025 Time Bound Programme on the elimination of child labour which established the Labour Committees at both District and Regional levels. Factors hindering the implementation of these initiatives include poverty, lack of education and awareness on employment laws.

There are Inadequate Correctional Facilities for Children with only one Juvenile Court which is in the Capital City (Dar es Salaam) with 5 Remand Homes all over the country that are incapable of accommodating all the children who are in conflict with the law. Detention facilities for children are in a few selected regions and have small capacities

UN Information

In 2008, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) encouraged Tanzania to consider ratifying the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of Migrants Workers and Member of Their Families (ICRMW), and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (CED), and to accept, as soon as possible, the amendment to article 20, paragraph 1, of CEDAW.xiii In 2006, the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) recommended that Tanzania ratify CAT.

CRC and HR Committee recommended that Tanzania continue and complete the process of adopting a Children's Act.

8. CRC recommended that Tanzania consider reviewing its legislation in order to ensure that no person under 18 years can be recruited in the armed forces and that the violation of the provisions of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children and armed conflicts be explicitly criminalized in Tanzania's legislation.xiv

CRC recommended that Tanzania expedite its law review processes in order to effectively prohibit the offences against children under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography and to ensure that perpetrators of the offences are duly prosecuted.

14. CEDAW recommended that Tanzania strengthen its national gender machinery, in particular the Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children for the Tanzanian mainland and the Ministry for Labour, Youth, Employment, Women and Children Development for Zanzibar.

16. UNCT indicated that the 2008 revised Child Development Policy identified a series of key challenges concerning children, especially orphans, children with disabilities, children living in the streets and those engaged in harmful labour. The 2007 revised National Health Policy emphasized equity and human rights perspectives, especially among women, children, elderly and people with chronic diseases.

UNCT stated that particular attention should be drawn to the widespread marginalization of girl children in different spheres of life, including education, and the total exclusion caused for many by early and forced marriage.

CRC expressed concern at the fact that discrimination against certain groups of children still exists in legislation as well as in practice, particularly with regard to teenage pregnant girls, children with disabilities, children of asylum-seekers, children infected with and/or affected by HIV/AIDS, and street children. CRC encouraged Tanzania to integrate children with disabilities into the regular educational system and into society.

27. UNCT stated that persons with albinism not only faced stigma and discrimination, but also the threat of violence and death. From 2006 to 2010, at least 58 persons with albinism were killed, the majority of whom were children. In addition, there were nine cases of attempted murder and reports of the desecration of graves.xv HR recommended strengthening efforts to put a halt to incidents of mutilation and killings of persons with albinism, and to ensure the efficient conduct of investigations and prosecution of the perpetrators.xvi CEDAW shared similar concerns.

CEDAW called on Tanzania to ensure that violence against women and girls, including domestic violence, marital rape and all forms of sexual abuse, constitute a criminal offence; that perpetrators are prosecuted, punished and rehabilitated; and that victims of violence have access to redress and protection. CEDAW recommended that legal aid be made available to all victims of violence, including in rural or remote areas.

UNCT stated that Tanzania was a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to trafficking. The incidence of internal trafficking was higher than that of transnational trafficking, largely from rural to urban areas, affecting primarily children for their exploitation in domestic servitude, petty trade and prostitution. The use of young girls for forced domestic labour continued to be the country's largest human trafficking problem. Governmental agencies were unable to implement the 2008 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, as the Ministry of Home Affairs has not yet established an Anti-Trafficking Committee tasked to set up the regulations of the Act.

HR Committee recommended taking all necessary measures to combat trafficking in human beings and sexual exploitation of women and children, ensure the effective implementation of its anti-trafficking legislation, and adopt a national action plan on trafficking.xvii CEDAW urged Tanzania to implement the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act and to adopt an action plan to address trafficking and to ensure the allocation of sufficient resources for its effective implementation.

CRC recommended that Tanzania strengthen preventive measures aimed at addressing the root causes that contribute to the vulnerability of children to sale, prostitution, pornography and sex tourism. CRC also urged Tanzania to undertake investigations into the sale of children for ritual purposes and bring the perpetrators to justice.

CRC recommended that Tanzania assess the situation of children entering Tanzania who may have been recruited or used in hostilities abroad, and provide them with assistance for their physical and psychological recovery and their social reintegration.

In 2010, the ILO Committee of Experts expressed hope that Tanzania would take measures to prohibit the use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities, in particular the production and trafficking of drugs. HR Committee recommended that Tanzania intensify its efforts to eliminate child labour, and in particular ensure the effective implementation of its programme to eliminate the worst forms of child labour by 2010. CRC expressed similar concerns.

UNCT indicated that corporal punishment was not prohibited in any environment, including in schools, and its use was widespread. HR Committee recommended that Tanzania take measures towards the abolition of corporal punishment as a lawful sanction, promote non-violent forms of discipline within the educational system and carry out public information campaigns about its harmful impact. CRC shared similar concerns.

42. UNCT stated that there was no separate criminal system for under-18s and, apart from one juvenile court in Dar Es Salaam, juvenile cases were heard in regular courts. Under-18s without the means to pay for a lawyer were often left without legal assistance. There was no system of diversion, no community rehabilitation schemes and non-custodial sentencing was limited. Children were routinely held in adult detention centres, even in regions where juvenile detention centres existed. The prisons were not staffed or equipped to provide specialist services, and juveniles were mixed with adults during the day. There were only two post-detention centres and five retention homes for under-18s in the country.

43. CRC urged Tanzania to ensure the full implementation of juvenile justice standards, clearly establish the age of criminal responsibility at 12 years, or at an older age that is an internationally accepted standard, and ensure that children between the ages of 16 and 18 are not considered as adults.

46. CEDAW was concerned about the multiple marriage regimes and urged Tanzania to harmonize civil, religious and customary law with the Convention and to complete its law reform in the area of marriage and family relations. CEDAW also called on Tanzania to implement measures aimed at eliminating polygamy, and to ensure that its law establishes the legal minimum age for marriage at 18 years for both girls and boys.xviii CRC and UNCT shared similar concerns regarding the minimum age for marriagexix.

CRC recommended ensuring free birth registration and introducing mobile birth registration units in order to reach remote and rural areas throughout the country.

56. CRC remained concerned about widespread poverty and the increasingly high number of children who do not enjoy the right to an adequate standard of living. UNCT stated that some 43 per cent of the population were children, 6 million of whom were living below the basic-needs poverty line and 3 million below the food poverty line.xx UNDP noted that Tanzania has the potential to reduce food poverty by 2015, if the current efforts to revive and accelerate agriculture production can be sustained.

57. CEDAW recommended that Tanzania strengthen its efforts to reduce the incidence of maternal and infant mortality, and to increase the life expectancy age for women. It urged Tanzania to make every effort to increase women's access to health-care facilities and medical assistance by trained personnel, especially in rural areas. CRC raised similar concerns. UNCT made a similar recommendation.

58. UNDP noted that although progress has been made, the spread of HIV/AIDS was the single most impoverishing force facing people and households in Tanzania. CEDAW recommended continued efforts to address the impact of HIV/AIDS on women and girls, as well as its social and family consequences. It urged Tanzania to enhance its focus on women's empowerment and to include clearly and visibly a gender perspective in its policies and programmes on HIV/AIDS. CRC expressed similar views.

In August 2008, the Special Rapporteur on toxic waste called on the Government, inter alia, to treat the issue of children being exposed to highly toxic substances as a matter of urgency and to try and find a way to reduce the number of children engaged in mining activities. He also called on the Government to monitor more closely the operations of large-scale mining companies, particularly on issues of occupational health and safety standards and the level of compliance of corporations with environmental and other legislation. Furthermore, he urged the Government, inter alia, to carry out social impact assessments to better protect and promote the human rights of the local population, and to develop a database of mining-related illnesses.

61. UNCT stated that the quality of education remained a concern. More Government attention was needed on a series of issues, particularly children with disabilities. While the Government had developed an Inclusive Education Strategy, immediate efforts should be taken to ensure its implementation and hence increase the inclusion of orphans and other vulnerable children.

62. UNCT stated that a 2002 regulation allowed for the expulsion of pregnant girls from school. Existing protection and special programmes for girls were inadequate and resulted in many girls being unable to complete the compulsory education programme.

63. CEDAW recommended implementing measures to ensure equal access of girls and women to all levels of education, retain girls in school and strengthen the implementation of re-entry policies so that girls can return to school after giving birth. It also encouraged Tanzania to take steps to overcome traditional attitudes that in some areas constitute obstacles to the education of girls and women. CRC shared similar concerns.

81. CRC recommended that Tanzania take all necessary steps to strengthen international cooperation through multilateral, regional and bilateral arrangements for the prevention, detection, investigation, prosecution and punishment of those responsible for acts involving the sale of children, child prostitution, child pornography and child sex tourism.

Stakeholders' Information

3. The National Network of Organizations Working with Children (NNOC) indicated that the Constitutions of Tanzania and Zanzibar included a Bill of Rights but did not provide specifically for the protection of children rights.

4. JS2 stated that Tanzania had enacted into law the Convention on the Rights of the Child through the 2009 Law of the Child Act. However, JS2 stated that this Act had not been implemented due to lack of rules and regulations that allocated roles and responsibilities of each actor and the lack of monitoring framework. The Global Initiative to End all Corporal Punishment of Children (GIEACPC) stated that, in Zanzibar, a Children's Bill was expected to be tabled in the Parliament in June 2011.

NNOC also indicated that children issues were not Union matters; as a result there were different laws governing children issues in mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar. IHRB recommended that Tanzania consider the recommendations of United Nations Treaty Bodies on adopting a unified law to protect the rights of children.

7. NNOC recommended that CHRAGG take over the coordination of children issues in Tanzania.

22. JS3 noted that, in Tanzania, there were discriminatory laws which fuelled violence against women. JS3 stated that, despite the National Plan of Action for the Prevention and Eradication of Violence against Women and Children of 2001-2015, there was little effort undertaken by the Government to address this problem.xxi NNOC reported on the high level of child abuse and notably recommended that Tanzania establish a reliable mechanism for collecting and maintaining official statistics on overall child abuse.

23. Equality Now (EN) reported that female genital mutilation (FGM) was practiced by specific ethnic groups notably in the Tarime district. EN added that FGM was prohibited under the Sexual Offences Special Provision Act 1998 but that Tanzania's response to prevent it had been inadequate. EN stated that only a handful of cases had ever reached the courts in recent years and the police were reluctant to arrest and prosecute the perpetrators. EN provided an example from November 2010 where the police failed to protect girls from FGM. EN made a series of recommendations on this issue from awareness-campaign to protection of girls fleeing FGM.

25. While noting increasing incidents of child sex tourism, particularly along the Indian Ocean's beach hotels, NNOC recommended that Tanzania take serious measures aimed at curbing the involvement of children in the sex tourism industry.

27. JS2 reported on the incidence of sexual abuse of children in Zanzibar, in both rural and urban areas and affecting both girls and boys. Child victims were stigmatized and adults usually preferred to solve the problem informally instead of officially reporting sexual abuses. JS2 reported on the number of cases dropped by police and the specific difficulties faced by children with disabilities in courts. JS2 made a series of recommendations including the development a comprehensive child protection system by 2013 that ensures access to justice for child victims.

28. IHRB recommended that Tanzania prioritise concerns raised by the United Nations Human Rights Treaty Bodies regarding the persistence of child labour.

29. GIEACPC reported that corporal punishment of children was legal in their homes, schools, as a sentence for crime and as a disciplinary measure in penal institutions and in alternative care settings in mainland Tanzania, and in Zanzibar to a certain extent. JS2 provided similar information. JS2 recommended that Tanzania prohibit corporal punishment in all settings as a matter of priority by 2013, repeal relevant legislation, carry out public educational campaigns and promote positive, non-violent forms of discipline as an alternative to corporal punishment.

32. JS5 stated that, despite the fact that the law provided for a juvenile justice system, in reality young offenders were often dealt with in the normal court system. Of particular concern was the detention of children in common holding facilities with adults that further exposed them to sexual abuses. CHRAGG recommended that Tanzania strengthen rehabilitation mechanisms for children in conflict with the law; train and deploy more social welfare and probation officers.

35. JS3 stated that the Marriage Act 1971 permitted a girl child to be married at the age of 14 years under Court Order or 15 years under parents or guardians permission. JS2 recommended that Tanzania amend the Marriage Act 1971 to prohibit marriage before the age of 18 by December 2012. EN reported that the Marriage Act 1971, as amended by Act 23/73, Act 15/80 and Act 9/96, allowed polygamous marriage. EN recommended that Tanzania reform the Marriage Act in order to provide equal protection under the law to both sexes; and to conform to regional and international human rights standards.

51. JS2 mentioned that, while Tanzania had substantially reduced child mortality over the past 10 years, it had failed to significantly reduce neonatal deaths and reported on the lack of political will to tackle this issue. JS2 also noted that chronic malnutrition remained endemic contributing to about 50 percent of all children's deaths. The drafting of the National Nutrition Strategy started in 2006, but had not yet been endorsed while nutrition and nutritional issues remained diluted across ministries.JS2 made recommendations in this respect. NNOC referred to malaria and made a recommendation regarding the provision of mosquito nets to poor families.

52. JS2 notably recommended that Tanzania increase the health budget from 12 to 14 per cent by 2012 and launch a nation-wide child survival and health awareness campaign by 2012, focusing on rural communities. JS4 referred to health related needs of pastoralists and indigenous populations.

JS2 reported that the right to education was enshrined in the Education Act as well as in numerous other acts with no reference to quality. JS5 indicated that primary education was compulsory and free, while secondary education was not free. Although net enrolment had increased, JS2 reported on the lack of teaching and learning materials; overcrowded classes; inadequate facilities; the prevalence of violence mainly perpetrated by teachers. JS2 also noted the need to better train teachers and to raise their status, and made recommendations in this regard.

59. JS3 mentioned truancy due to child labour, which contributed to poor performance at schools and early school dropout. JS3 reported that children with disabilities did have inadequate facilities to access education despite the provisions in the 2009 Child Act and the 2010 Persons with Disabilities Act.

60. JS4 also recommended that Tanzania adopt education programmes which meet the specific needs of pastoralists and indigenous populations' way of life, for instance boarding schools.

NNOC was concerned at the lack of information on how refugee children (including unaccompanied ones) were dealt with when Tanzania closed down all refugee camps in Ngara and Kibondo Districts in 2007/2008 and repatriated them to a neighbouring country.

Accepted and Rejected Recommendations

The following recommendations were accepted:

A - 85.5. Seek the means to render as effective as possible the respect of the provisions of the Law on the Rights of the Child, of 2009 (Cape Verde);

A - 85.6. Fully apply the Law of the Child Act (Belgium);

A - 85.7. Pursue efforts in human rights related areas, in particular legal review process, female genital mutilation and corporal punishment (Egypt);

A - 85.17. Conduct an assessment of the national policies on the rights of children and to identify the areas where immediate action may be taken (Romania);

A - 85.25. Implement a comprehensive legal and policy framework to end practices which are discriminatory and lead to violence against women and girls, including witchcraft killings, rape, domestic violence and practices related to customary ownership and inheritance of land (Canada);

A - 85.27. Take further steps to protect women and girls against violence and discrimination and put in place appropriate policy measures in that regard (South Africa);

A - 85.28. Continue policies aimed at multiplying and deepening, with inter alia the support of the international cooperation, actions to combat and bring an end to of all forms of gender violence, female genital mutilation and all practices that result either discriminatory or violating women’s human rights (Argentina);

A - 85.29. Consider strengthening the national gender machinery and put in place a comprehensive strategy, including legislation, to modify or eliminate traditional practices, such as female genital mutilation and stereotypes that discriminate against women, paying special attention to the situation of older women (Brazil);

A - 85.30. Pursue and strengthen efforts to combat social practices harmful to women, in particular female genital mutilation but also all other violence against them as well as discrimination in their access to rights in general (Cape Verde);

A - 85.31. Adopt the necessary measures to eradicate Female Genital Mutilation and to develop programs of awareness and education on its harmful effects (Uruguay);

A - 85.36. Improve the access for persons with disabilities to education and health care, with particular focus on children (Slovakia);

A - 85.48. Allocate adequate resources to ensure the effective implementation of the National Action Plans to combat Violence Against Women, Violence Against Children and Female Genital Mutilation (Hungary);

A - 85.50. Redoubling efforts to protect women and children against all forms of violence, including the use of FGM (Netherlands);

A - 85.51. Continue enforcing appropriate measures, such as the National Plan of Action for the Prevention and Eradication of Violence against Women and Children or the awareness campaign “Say No to Violence”, to eliminate effectively violence against women, in particular domestic violence (Slovakia);

A - 85.54. Strengthen efforts to fulfil its obligations under the Convention on Elimination of Discrimination against Women, including by adopting and implementing legislation prohibiting female genital mutilation (Australia);

A - 85.55. Intensify its efforts to protect women from harmful traditional practices, such as female genital mutilations (France);

A - 85.56. Put in place a comprehensive strategy, including legislative measures to eliminate practices and stereotypes that discriminate women, such as female genital mutilation (Poland);

A - 85.58. Continue this important work related to violence against children by undertaking civic education at all levels of society, especially throughout the educational system and justice system, on the negative effects of violence against children (Sweden);

A - 85.59. Address child labour as a matter of urgency in accordance to its international commitments, notably ILO Conventions No. 138 and 182 (Slovakia);

A - 85.60. Fully implement the National Plan of Action on Child Labour (United States of America);

A - 85.61. Step up its legislative and policy measures, awareness campaigns and implementation of the 2025 Time Bound Programme on the elimination of child labour (Indonesia);

A - 85.62. Undertake more effective measures to address the problems of trafficking, sexual abuse and exploitation of women and children, including through ensuring effective implementation of the relevant legislations and undertaking intensive media and education programmes aimed to increase public awareness and sensitivities on the rights of women and children (Malaysia);

A - 85.63. Adopt a national program against human trafficking, in particular of women and children, in order to prevent this crime, rehabilitate victims and prosecute perpetrators (Mexico);

A - 85.64. Take the necessary steps to strengthen international cooperation through multilateral, regional and bilateral arrangements for the prevention, detection, investigation, prosecution and punishment of those responsible for acts involving the sale of children, child prostitution, child pornography and child sex tourism (Egypt);

A - 85.65. Deploy more efforts in order to address the problem of street children and child work and to devise training programs and to improve qualifications of those working in the field in order to receive the necessary technical cooperation assistance from human rights mechanisms and other relevant organisations (Sudan);

A - 85.69. Pursue to enhance the juvenile justice system and ensure separation of juveniles from adults in detention (Djibouti);

A - 85.71. Ensure free birth registration and in this regard conduct relevant awareness-raising campaigns for the public and adopt efficient policies with a view to cover country’s remote and rural areas (Slovakia);

A - 85.74. Respecting the core labour standards and promoting corporate social responsibility throughout Tanzania, and in particular, develop and implement measures to eliminate child labour (Netherlands);

A - 85.78. Increase cooperation with the relevant United Nations bodies and other international organizations in the efforts to reduce the incidence of maternal and infant mortality and increase

women’s access to health care facilities (Malaysia); 

A - 85.79. Seek international assistance to supplement the national efforts to reduce maternal and child mortality (Uganda);

A - 85.81. Pursue its efforts in the area of child and maternal mortality to reach a significant decrease of mother, new-born and children deaths (Burkina Faso);

A - 85.82. Take the necessary measures to increase women’s access to health care facilities and medical assistance by trained personnel, in particular in rural areas, in order to reduce the incidence of maternal and infant mortality and to enhance the life expectancy of women (Japan);

A - 85.84. Put in place a comprehensive strategy to ensure that all children have equal access to education (Poland);

A - 85.85. Continue to put more resources in education to reduce overcrowding in classrooms (Zimbabwe);

A - 85.86. Introduce, in the interim, “hot seating” in schools as a stop gap measure to reduce overcrowding in classes (Zimbabwe);

A - 85.87. Redouble its efforts to develop and maintain a qualified cadre of highly motivated primary and secondary school teachers capable of providing quality education to students (Canada);

A - 85.88. Give special attention to the attendance of children to secondary schools (Turkey);

A - 85.93. Provide pupils with disabilities with adequate equipment and tools (Finland);

The following recommendations were rejected:

No relevant rejected recommendations.


The following recommendations were left pending:

P - 86.36. Step up its efforts to protect women and girls from sexual violence also in marriage (Norway);

P - 86.37. Strengthen measures aiming to make effective the rights of the Child from an integral perspective and based on the Convention on the Rights of the Child, particularly on issue of eradication of child labour, violence and sexual abuses, corporal punishment and street children conditions (Uruguay);

P - 86.38. Prohibit all violence against children, including corporal punishment (Sweden);

P - 86.39. Amend marriage law in order that the minimum age for marriage for both girls and boys is set at 18 (Denmark);

P - 86.47. Continue to promote the right to education, while prohibiting corporal punishment (Djibouti);

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