CRIN has carried out a comprehensive research of the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) to ascertain the extent to which children's rights are addressed in the UN mechanism. This page contains CRIN's main research report, individual country reports, upcoming sessions and deadlines, and more information on the UPR and how NGOs can engage.
- LATEST NEWS / Introduction to CRIN's work
- CRIN's 2010 Report: "The Status of Children's Rights in the UPR"
- NGO experiences / Database of NGOs reporting
- CRIN's submissions to the UPR
- Follow-up: Progress reports submitted by States / NGOs
- CRIN's Children's Rights Reference Report (192 reports completed)
- Further explanation / analysis of the UPR
- Changes to the UPR process (further to HRC Review)
- Useful contacts
- Session 16 concludes - read individual summaries
- UPR debate during HRC session - States condemn Israel
- NGOs to now submit reports via online system
- Israel first country to boycott UPR
- NGOs now able to deliver video statements
With the introduction of the UPR to the UN mechanism portfolio, an opportunity to advance children's rights potentially exists.
Indeed, with an increasing number of children's rights focused organisations starting to use the mechanism, the need exists for a focused analysis of the UPR from a children's rights perspective.
To this end, CRIN has undertaken the following areas of work:
- Individual country reports: CRIN has compiled a special report for each individual State Review, detailing references to children's rights throughout the UPR process: from the pre-review report submissions to the post-review outcome reports. Reports for Sessions 1 - 12 of the UPR can be found below.
- Analysis of country reports: An extensive analysis into these children's rights reference reports was then carried out, assessing the extent to which children's rights are addressed in the UPR, with a focus on which groups of organisations within the UPR process (NGOs, UN bodies, States) are addressing children's rights the most and the least, and in addition which particular children's rights issues appear most prominently and which seem to be neglected - see below.
- Assessment of NGO participation: CRIN interviewed a number of children's rights focused organisations to further understand their experiences in engaging with the UPR - see below.
- Final Report: The findings of both the analysis into the individual country reviews and the NGO responses to the survey have been collated and documented in a report which was published in November 2010. See below.
- Follow-up: CRIN is monitoring closely the progress made by States in implementing the recommendations - See below.
- Second Cycle: Now that the 2nd cycle is underway, we are continuing to extract children's rights and monitoring progress made - See below.
End of first cycle
All 192 UN Member States (excluding South Sudan) have now been reviewed under the new mechanism. The second cycle begins in May 2012. CRIN will continue to monitor the UPR and all information concerning deadlines, upcoming reviews, research and analysis can be found on this page.
Key findings from the report include:
- One in five mentions focus on children's rights: Approximately one fifth of all points made across the UPR process are children's rights focused, but is this really satisfactory given children cut across all human rights clusters? Furthermore, the findings highlighted below raise concerns over which issues are being addressed adequately and which ones are not.
- States are avoiding more controversial issues: States tend to focus on, and accept, mostly recommendations on 'softer' issues, such as education and health, and neglect, or reject recommendations on more controversial issues, such as corporal punishment or juvenile justice.
- NGOs have an important role to play: NGOs lag behind UN bodies and UN Member States in the extent to which they address children's rights in the UPR. Indeed, with States shown to avoid the more controversial issues, NGOs have an important role to play to address the full spectrum of children's rights issues and ensure neglected issues are brought to the forefront of the agenda.
CRIN has compiled a list of all child rights focused recommendations rejected by States throughout the first cycle of the UPR (except the final session which has yet to take place).
Why are these important?
By seeing which recommendations your country has rejected, you will know which key child rights areas are in need of addressing.
NGOs experiences of using the UPR
CRIN has summarised the findings of a series of interviews conducted with a range of children's rights focused organisations, assessing the ways they have approached the various stages of the UPR process.
The document illustrates both successful and unsuccessful strategies adopted in each stage of the UPR process, from submitting reports, to national and international lobbying approaches, to post-review follow-up. This guide is an important source both for organisations who have already submitted reports to the UPR, as well as those looking to engage with the mechanism for the first time.
- NGOs are still learning about the UPR: As the UPR differs from existing UN mechanisms in a number of ways, NGOs are, to an extent, still finding their feet.
- Two different perspectives: A clear distinction exists between those who engage at the Geneva level (primarily international NGOs) and those far from Geneva (national NGOs amongst others). Having a representative based in Geneva enables organisations to combine report submission with lobbying. For obvious reasons, this is often not an option for national NGOs.
- The UPR as an additional advocacy tool: A number of organisations alluded to the need to treat the UPR as an additional advocacy tool that complements their existing day to day work. The UPR was often seen as an 'enforcer' of existing advocacy work done in relation to the CRC, for instance.
- Wider benefits of engaging with the UPR: A number of internal and external benefits emerged from the survey, particularly national NGOs reporting how the UPR helps them build alliances with the wider human rights community.
CRIN has compiled a list of all the child rights focused NGOs (and other organisations, including Ombudspersons), who have submitted reports to the UPR. Reports are either submitted individually or as part of a coalition or joint submission with other organisations.
Why is this important?
For NGOs / Individuals engaging with the UPR, the database will highlight which other organisations are already reporting to the UPR so that you can, if needs be, co-ordinate your approach. The database also details the list of coalitions that exist, so your organisation may wish to join a coalition or submit particular information to that reporting body.
CRIN has made the following submissions to the UPR as part of our inhuman sentencing campaign:
- Antigua and Barbuda (Universal Periodic Review)
- Botswana (Universal Periodic Review )
- India (Universal Periodic Review)
- Pakistan (Universal Periodic Review)
- Tonga (Universal Periodic Review)
- Nigeria (Universal Periodic Review)
- Saudi Arabia (Universal Periodic Review)
- Malaysia (Universal Periodic Review)
Mid-term Progress Reports
Now that the focus of the UPR process moves onto the steps States are taking to implement the recommendations issued to them in their initial reviews, NGOs have an important role to play in monitoring progress.
Progress reports submitted by States
States are encouraged to voluntarily submit update reports on the steps they are taking to implement the recommendations made to them during their reviews. To date, only a limited number of States have submitted reports.
The following States have submitted progress reports. CRIN has studied each mid-term report and extracted references to child rights, compiling separate reports. Both the original report and the child rights extract report can be found below.
- Argentina (in Spanish only) Child rights extract report (spanish)
- Azerbaijan Child rights extract report
- Bahrain Child rights extract report
- Benin (in French only)
- Chile (in Spanish only)
- Colombia (in Spanish only) Child rights extract report (Spanish)
- Costa Rica (in Spanish only)
- Ecuador (in Spanish only) Child rights extract report (Spanish)
- Finland Child rights extract report
- Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Child rights extract report
- France (in French only)
- Japan Child rights extract report
- Kenya Child rights extract report
- Mauritius Child rights extract report
- Netherlands Child rights extract report
- Poland Child rights extract report
- Romania Child rights extract report
- Slovenia Child rights extract report
- Spain (in Spanish only)
- Switzerland (in French only)
- Ukraine (in Russian only)
- United Kingdom Child rights extracts
- To read the original mid-term reports for the countries above, click here.
N.B CRIN will be uploading more reports as soon as they become available!
Progress reports submitted by NGOs
Some NGOs have also started to submit reports assessing the progress being made by States to implement the recommendations issued to them during their review.
Here are some examples:
- Indian NGOs criticise State's provisional UPR report
- Kenyan NGOs assess government's implementation progress
- UPR-HR Forum, Status report on Bangladesh (July 2009 - July 2011)
- Odhikar, report on Bangladesh (2011)
- Bahá’í International Community report on Iran (2011)
- Cambodia: "All Talk, Little Action: Two Years After UN Human Rights Review"
Please do share with us any of your reports. Contact email@example.com.
CRIN's Children's Rights Reference Reports
CRIN has extracted mentions of children's rights for each State review, including mentions from State reports, UN compilation reports, NGO compilation reports and recommendations made by fellow UN Member States.
CRIN to date has compiled 192 reports (one for each of the countries reviewed in the first cycle). The second cycle is now underway and CRIN will continue to compile reports.
UPCOMING STATE REVIEWS (SECOND CYCLE)
To access the individual children's rights references reports, click on a country below.
Details to follow
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Session 21: Jan / Feb 2015
Details to follow
Session 20: October / November 2014
The reporting deadline for the 20th session will be 1 February (changed from 1 March 2014):
- Italy El Salvador Gambia Bolivia Fiji San Marino
- Kazakhstan Angola Iran Madagascar Iraq
- Slovenia Egypt Bosnia and Herzegovina
Session 19: April / May 2014
The reporting deadlines for the 19th session of the UPR Working Group will be 1 September 2013 (changed from 4 and 11 November 2013):
- Norway Albania Democratic Republic of Congo Côte d’Ivoire Portugal Bhutan
- Dominica Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Brunei Darussalam Costa Rica
- Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Qatar Nicaragua
18th Session: January / February 2014
The reporting deadlines for the 18th session of the UPR Working Group are as follows:
- 17 June 2013: Afghanistan,Chile,New Zealand,Uruguay,Vanuatu,Viet Nam,Yemen
- 24 June 2013: Cambodia,Comoros,Cyprus,Dominican Republic,Eritrea, Macedonia, Slovakia
17th Session: 21 October - 1 November 2013
The reporting deadlines for the 17th session of the UPR Working Group are as follows:
- 4 March 2013 - China, Jordan, Mauritius, Mexico, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Senegal
- 11 March 2013 - Belize, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of Congo, Malaysia, Malta, Monaco
16th Session: 22 April - 3 May 2013
The reporting deadline has now passed for the upcoming session.
- Turkmenistan Burkina Faso Cape Verde
- Colombia Uzbekistan Tuvalu Germany
- Djibouti Canada Bangladesh Russian Federation
- Azerbaijan Cameroon Cuba
15th Session: 21 January to 1 February 2013
- France Tonga Romania Mali
- Botswana Bahamas Burundi
- Luxembourg Barbados Montenegro
- United Arab Emirates Israel Liechtenstein Serbia
Session 14: 22 October - 5 November 2012
- Czech Republic Argentina Gabon Ghana
- Peru Guatemala Benin Republic of Korea
- Switzerland Pakistan Zambia Japan
- Ukraine Sri Lanka
The above reports were adopted during the Council's 22nd session. More here.
COMPLETED STATE REVIEWS (SECOND CYCLE)
The reports below include child rights extracts from both the pre-review reports and the final recommendations.
- UPR Session 24
- UPR Session 23
- UPR Session 22
- UPR Session 21
- UPR Session 20
- UPR Session 19
- UPR Session 18
- UPR Session 17
- UPR Session 16
- UPR Session 15
- UPR Session 14
- UPR Session 13
Bahrain Ecuador Tunisia Morocco
Indonesia Finland United Kingdom India
Brazil Philippines Algeria Poland
Netherlands South Africa
COMPLETED STATED REVIEWS (FIRST CYCLE)
For countries below who have completed the UPR process, available are the pre-review reports as well as the final report and conclusion / recommendations from the working group meeting. Click on a country to access all of these reports.
- UPR Session 12
- UPR Session 11
- UPR Session 10
- UPR Session 9
- UPR Session 8
- UPR Session 7
- UPR Session 6
- UPR Session 5
- UPR Session 4
- UPR Session 3
- UPR Session 2
- UPR Session 1
Session 12: 3 - 14 October 2011
Countries to be reviewed:
Tajikistan Tanzania Antigua and Barbuda
Swaziland Trinidad and Tobago Thailand Ireland
Togo Syria Venezuela Iceland Zimbabwe Lithuania
Uganda Timor-Leste Moldova Haiti
Session 11: 2 to 13 May 2011
Countries to be reviewed:
Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia Sudan Palau
Papua New Guinea Samoa Singapore Solomon Islands
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname
Belgium Denmark Greece Hungary Latvia
Session 10: 24 January to 4 February 2011
Countries to be reviewed:
Nauru Rwanda Nepal Saint Lucia Oman Austria
Myanmar Australia Georgia St. Kitts and Nevis
Sao Tome and Principe Namibia Niger Mozambique
Session 8 - 3 to 14 May 2011
Countries to be reviewed:
Kyrgyzstan Kiribati Guinea Laos Spain Lesotho
Kenya Armenia Guinea-Bissau Sweden Grenada
Turkey Guyana Kuwait Belarus
*Haiti will now be reviewed during the 12th UPR session.
Eritrea Cyprus Dominican Republic Cambodia Norway
Albania Democratic Republic of Congo Cote d'Ivoire Portugal
Bhutan Dominica Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Brunei Darussalam Costa Rica Equitorial Guinea Ethiopia
Session 3 - 1st to 15th December 2008
Botswana Bahamas Burundi Luxembourg Barbados
Montenegro United Arab Emirates Israel Liechtenstein
Serbia Turkmenistan Burkina Faso Cape Verde
Colombia Uzbekistan Tuvalu
Session 1 - 7th to 18th April 2008
Bahrain Ecuador Tunisia Morocco Indonesia
Finland United Kingdom India Brazil South Africa
Czech Republic Argentina Netherlands Algeria
To view the original UPR reports for each country, click here and select a country
- The NGO Group for the CRC has compiled fact sheets on the UPR, including tips on writing reports and drawing up concise recommendations. Read them, here.
- OHCHR detail on their website how the UPR process works, click here.
- UPR-info.org have information on the UPR process, including NGO participation. Click here.
- International Service for Human Rights (ISHR) produce analytical coverage of all reviews, click here.
The five-year review of the Human Rights Council's work and functioning, and a review of the Council's 'status', were completed in 2011.
Key changes concerning the UPR:
1. The period between reviews has lengthened from 4 to 4.5 years
2. The Working Group reviews have been extended to 3.5 hours.
3. A separate section in the Stakeholder compilation report will be attributed to the national human rights institution of the State under review.
CRIN has covered the review and outcomes. Read the following:
- The outcomes and implications for NGOs
- NGOs response to the outcomes
- The final text (outcome document)
- CRIN's report of the review process
(Including the views of individual States)
The Working Group of the NGO Group for the CRC for the Human Rights Council (of which CRIN are a part), comprises a group of children's rights focused organisations collaborating on all areas of the Council's work, including the UPR.
For more information, contact the co-convenors of the NGO WG:
Alan Kikuchi-White, Geneva Representative
Or Veronica Yates, CRIN
Previous UPR report items
- 15/05/2008: MALI: Children's Rights References in the Universal Periodic Review
- 15/05/2008: ROMANIA: Children's Rights References in the Universal Periodic Review
- 14/05/2008: FRANCE: Children's Rights References in the Universal Periodic Review
- 14/05/2008: TONGA: Children's Rights References in the Universal Periodic Review
- 13/05/2008: SRI LANKA: Children's Rights References in the Universal Periodic Review
Organisation Contact Details:
Child Rights International Network
2 Pontypool Place
Tel: +44 (0)207 401 2257
Last updated 21/05/2013 14:46:30