A compilation of extracts featuring child-rights issues from the reports submitted to the second Universal Periodic Review. There are extracts from the 'National Report', the 'Compilation of UN Information' and the 'Summary of Stakeholder's Information'. Also included is the final report and the list of accepted and rejected recommendations.
Uganda - Twenty-Sixth session - 2016
3 November 2016 - 9:00 a.m. - 12:30 p.m.
1. Uganda has made tremendous progress in promoting respect for human rights, rule of law and democracy including ratification of key international and regional human rights instruments and attempting to make human rights a reality for its citizens. The 1995 Constitution forms the bedrock for the protection and promotion of human rights. Furthermore, the Parliament has adopted a number of laws elaborating the rights provided in the Constitution including for vulnerable groups such as children, women and persons with disability, among others. The legal framework provides for redress through courts of law and other key national human rights institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights such as the Uganda Human Rights Commission (UHRC) and the Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) whose work is complimented by vibrant civil society organizations.
2. Justice, law and order sector – Recommendations 42, 43 and 66
26. The Judiciary is using technology to enhance access to justice. For instance, video link facilities for children and juvenile cases in courts have been introduced, together with a children model court as a pilot. These measures are designed to protect the identity and attendant rights of children in the juvenile justice system.
Uganda Prison Service
36. In addition to the above, the UPS has taken measures to address the welfare needs of nursing mothers and their children. By 2015, the UPS was taking care of 234 babies living with their mothers in prison, as part of a Policy of ensuring that babies are not separated from their mothers. The UPS has taken measures to ensure that these children have access to day care centres, baby clothing and milk for proper nutrition.
5. Economic, social and cultural rights - Recommendations 22, 85-97, 107 and 108
50. Recommendations were made to enhance the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights including:
(a) Combat Malaria, Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, and continue decreasing the child and maternal mortality rates, and increase life expectancy;
(e) Receive the assistance it requires, in personnel and logistical resources, to develop the health sector in order to reduce the child mortality rate and tackle malaria, HIV and TB;
(g) Ensure access to education for all and improve education standards;
(h) Increase public expenditure on education and functioning education system;
(i) Continue with policy on primary education;
(j) Implement policies to support food production, access to credit and school meals programs linked to local food production.
51. Since 2011, funding for malaria, Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDs has increased to US $2.4 million. The Tuberculosis case detection rate has increased from 39.8% to 45%, and the Tuberculosis treatment success rate has risen from 43% to 64%. With regard to HIV/AIDs: the percentage of service coverage is 56%. Children exposed to HIV from their mothers and accessing HIV testing within two months has improved from 30% to 58%. The Proportion of HIV positive pregnant mothers enrolled on ARVS for elimination of mother to child transmission increased from 407 in 2011 to 1,658 in 2014/2015. As a result of these efforts, some achievements have been registered. Nevertheless there is still need for further improvements.
53. The Health Sector has tremendously improved the health management information system using DHIS2. An E-health Policy and Strategy are being finalised aimed at standardising health management information systems and creating a national health depository for all stakeholders. The Health Management information system is updated regularly to accommodate new programme demands and indicators for measuring progress in the health indicators. Data is disaggregated by age, gender and the sector is now moving towards disaggregation of data by location, education level and income status especially in areas of Maternal and Child Health.
57. The Sector has also been supported by GAVI/Global Fund to tackle immunizable diseases as well as treatment for malaria and HIV/AIDS through Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission. The Sector has also been supported in implementing the Technical guidance from the UN and UN agencies in Uganda to improve the responsiveness of maternal care needs, supplementary recruitment and deployment of Midwives, laboratory staff, medical officers, and nurses, among others.
59. The Government has taken steps to maintain access to education for all through the provision of Universal Primary Education (UPE) and Universal Secondary Education (USE) including special needs education. In 2011, the Government introduced the Universal Post Level Education and Training (UPOLET) programme which is in line with the National Development Plan (NDP) to cater for Ugandan students who successfully complete and pass their Uganda Certificate of Education.
60. The Annual School Census shows that secondary school enrolment has had increased to 1,395,250 by March 2014, compared to 954,324, at which it stood in 2007 when the Universal Secondary School programme was introduced. For the Universal Secondary Education (USE) schools (S.1-S.4), the total in 2014 stood at 873,476 of who 469,819 were male and 403,657 female resulting in 8% (8% male and 8% female) increment from last year. The results indicate that the Government Aided schools have 478,554 students while the PPP schools have 394,922 students eligible for USE. USE intake in senior one continued to increase since inception of the program in 2007.
61. The budget of the Ministry of education has increased over the years since 2011 to ensure the efficient functioning of the education sector. In 2011/2012 FY, Education received 15.6% of the National Budget, moving to 17.1% in 2012/2013 and 17.5% in 2014/2015. These increments are intended to improve the quality of education, accommodate more learners and improve the welfare of teachers.
63. Furthermore, the Government has adopted the National Agricultural Policy 2013, which sets a solid framework to guide investment and delivery of agricultural services. The Government has also set the following targets to: end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round by 2030; end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving by 2025 the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under five years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women, and older persons by 2030; and to increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development, and plant and livestock gene banks to enhance agricultural productive capacity.
7. Rights of vulnerable groups – Recommendations 6, 18, 23, 32–36, 44–59, 98–105, and 110
69. Various recommendations were made relating to the protection of various vulnerable groups such as women, children, persons with disabilities, refugees and internally displaced people, indigenous people and domestic workers.
73. Military personnel have been trained to respect human rights including on the rights and needs of women. Security agencies have partnered with several institutions, such as UHRC, UNICEF, UN OHCHR, ACTV, Save the Children and the Refugee Law Project to train their personnel.
76. The following recommendations were made: (a) Enforce more effectively the child labour and trafficking laws and improve protection of children against child labour and economic exploitation; (b) Ensure that children and youths are not recruited into the abhorrent practices incompatible with Ugandan law and culture and practices detrimental to moral integrity; (c) Combat incidents of ritual killings of children and adults in various parts of Uganda and to ensure effective investigation and prosecution of these crimes; (d) Protect children by among others reviewing juvenile justice system; (e) Strengthen and further develop measures to ensure that all children born within the national territory are registered; (f) Adopt list of hazardous jobs for children.
77. The Government is committed to enforcing laws against child labour and antitrafficking which are also part of NAP. The Government has reviewed the Children’s Act to ensure the protection of children and has also developed and implemented the Youth Livelihood Programmes to eradicate poverty. The Children (Amendment) Act No.19 of 2016 was and it protects children from harmful customary practices and employment, violence and also the right to access child protection services. The Act also establishes the National Children’s Authority whose functions include monitoring the implementation of laws relating to all forms of child abuse. Police revised its forms for collection of evidence (PF3) in cases that include sexual abuse, and introduced pictograms to enable children provide evidence with ease.
78. The juvenile justice system is a subject of review annually under the JLOS which is aimed at improving access to justice by ensuring speedy and fair trials. The new Children’s Act eases adjudication and sentencing procedures for children or juveniles tried in the High Court. Furthermore, National Diversion Guidelines have been developed to cater for alternative dispute resolution mechanisms for child related justice cases. This is intended to reduce the inflow of petty child offences into the criminal justice system which causes delays and traumatises children. A Child Justice Strategy is being developed to guide and coordinate child and juvenile justice processes in the country so that their matters can be handled expeditiously with respect for children rights.
79. The Government has also developed a child protection strategy to cater for social protection of children and juveniles to cater to their unique needs. JLOS has established a Justice for Children (J4C) programme to coordinate and promote juvenile justice at the District level. There are 15 J4C coordinators deployed around the country to monitor processes and observance of due process in juvenile justice in Uganda. The capacity of various stakeholders involved in the juvenile justice system has been built and this will be continuous. There are efforts to improve the court environment for child and juvenile related cases through the use of video link facilities in some courts such as High Court Kampala. Furthermore, a model children’s court has been established in Makindye to illustrate what other children’s courts should look like. The judiciary has developed guidelines on handling child and juvenile justice matters and revised the jurisdiction for handling children’s cases from Magistrate Grade II to Grade I.
80. The DPP has developed prosecution guidelines in handling Sexual and Gender Based Violence and child related cases. JLOS is involved in continuous training and human resource development for all justice sectors in child and juvenile justice, among other things. Efforts are being made to improve juvenile justice however progress is often hindered by inadequate resources.
81. The Government has taken measures to ensure that births are registered through the National Identification and Registration Authority which is responsible for registering births of all children born within the national territory. Although there has been low birth registration, this has improved over the years with support from partners, especially UNICEF which has supported mobile registration. As of 2014, 60% of children aged 0–4 years had birth registration papers.
82. In 2012, as part of Employment (Employment of Children) Regulations, 2012 (Statutory Instrument 17 of 2012), the Government adopted a list of hazardous work for children. The instrument defined "hazardous work” means work, which by its nature or circumstances in which it is performed, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of a child.
Persons with disabilities
(b) Implement the steps envisaged in the promotion of rights of people with disabilities, with a special emphasis on equal opportunities for children with disabilities;
(c) Guarantee the rights of PWDs, in particular, discrimination faced by women with disabilities, and lack of equal opportunities for minors, with a particular attention to albino children;
(e) Improve access for persons with disabilities to education and health care, with particular focus on children.
85. The Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development has conducted a research study on children with disabilities in preparation for an action plan that will be implemented by the Government to ensure equal opportunities for children with disabilities.
86. The Constitution and the Persons with Disability Act, 2006 protect and guarantee rights of persons with disability including women and children. The Government has reviewed the Persons with Disability Act and efforts are geared towards recognizing albinism as a form of disability as per their demands. The Ministry has promoted awareness of the rights of persons with disabilities including albinos to prevent their discrimination. The EOC is mandated to eliminate discrimination and inequality against any individual or group of persons including persons with disability.5 The reports and assessments by the EOC provide guidance and recommendations on how Government institutions can enhance gender and equity in opportunities and are relevant to the protection and promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities. Persons with disabilities have continued to have representation in the youth Council and Local Government and this was followed in the 2011 and 2016 elections.
90. The Government has increased support to special needs education for children with disabilities. The Ministry of Health has conducted awareness raising campaigns for persons with disabilities including children and there are ongoing developments to ensure that their buildings, equipment, health supplies and capacities meet the needs of persons with disability including children.
102. The Employment Act also protects domestic workers. However, they continue to be vulnerable. The Government, through its education policies including UPE and USE, is increasing school enrolment and dealing with drop rates, especially of the girl child, who often end up recruited into domestic labour.
104. In 2015, the UHRC highlighted the conditions of domestic workers in terms of work, remuneration, lack of social benefits and child labour, among others. The UHRC made several recommendations which the Government will study and implement.
Training of security personnel
110. Security personnel have been trained to respect human rights including freedom of expression and assembly. Security agencies have partnered with several institutions, such as UHRC, UNICEF, UN OHCHR, ACTV, Save the Children and the Refugee Law Project to train their personnel.
117. The following laws aimed at promoting human rights have also been promulgated, as well as steps taken to implement existing laws. They include: the Uganda Retirements Benefits Act (15 of 2011); Institution of Traditional or Cultural Leaders Act (6 of 2011); The Transfer of Convicted Offenders Act (2 of 2012); The Prevention and Prohibition of Torture Act (3 of 2012); The HIV and AIDS Prevention Act; The National Council for Disability (Amendment) Act (6 of 2013); The National Council for Youth (Amendment) Act (17 of 2015); The Non-Governmental Organizations Act (2016); and the Children (Amendment) Act (2016).
I. Background and framework
A. Scope of international obligations
2. Other main relevant international instruments
3. In 2015, the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families recommended that Uganda: consider withdrawing the reservation made with respect to article 18 (3) (d) of ICRMW; consider making the declarations provided for in articles 76 and 77 of ICRMW; consider ratifying or acceding to the ILO Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97), and the Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189); and proceed to ratifying the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, and the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.
B. Constitutional and legislative framework
6. The country team stated that, during the reporting period, Uganda had adopted human rights-oriented laws, including the Prevention and Prohibition of Torture Act 2012, and recommended passing legislation on administration and access to justice such as the Judiciary Administration Bill, the Legal Aid Policy, the Children Amendment Bill, the Witness Protection Bill, the National Transitional Justice Policy and Law, the Amnesty Act (Amendment) Bill and the Law Revision (Penalties in Criminal Matters) Miscellaneous Amendment Bill. It also recommended strengthening legal protection against sexual offences and addressing gaps in the Penal Code Act and Evidence Act.
8. The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities recommended amending the Children’s Act in line with ICRPD in order to mainstream the rights of children with disabilities across all programmes and provide necessary resources for their protection.
C. Institutional and human rights infrastructure and policy measures
12. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recommended that national awareness-raising campaigns be conducted to combat all forms of violence against women and girls and to encourage victims to report cases of violence and that measures aimed at protecting and rehabilitating victims of violence be strengthened.
III. Implementation of international human rights obligations, taking into account applicable international humanitarian law
A. Equality and non-discrimination
23. The country team noted discriminatory provisions in the Penal Code Act on “unnatural offences” that support legal and social aversion towards homosexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons, and the persistence of harmful traditional practices and stereotypes that perpetuate discrimination against women, children, persons with disabilities, sexual minorities, ethnic minority groups, most at-risk populations and people living with HIV.
B. Right to life, liberty and security of person
30. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights expressed concern about the prevalence of violence against women, in particular domestic and sexual violence, 61 and recommended taking, as a matter of priority, comprehensive measures aimed at eliminating all harmful practices against women and girls. The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities recommended ensuring that women with disabilities who are victims of gender-based violence have access to both accessible services and information, including shelters and complaints mechanisms.
B. Right to life, liberty and security of person
33. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights expressed concern about the large number of children aged 6–13 years engaged in labour activity in Uganda.The Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families expressed concern about child migrant workers being exploited in forced labour in agriculture, fishing, mining and brick-making.
34. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recommended that Uganda effectively implement the National Plan of Action on Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour and monitor instances of child labour in order to ensure its gradual eradication, in accordance with the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182).
35. Noting with concern that a significant number of children were involved in child labour, the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations urged the Government to strengthen efforts to ensure the effective elimination of child labour, especially hazardous work, and to ensure compliance with the regulations providing for penalties for violating the provisions on employing children and young persons.
36. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights expressed concern about the increasing number of street children and the widespread violence against children. Uganda should consider adopting a comprehensive plan on the protection of children, provide measures to assist street children and children in care institutions, and prohibit corporal punishment.
38. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights expressed concern about the persistence of early and forced marriage, especially in rural areas. Uganda should ensure strict adherence to the constitutional provision on the minimum age for marriage and ensure that all laws, including customary laws, are in compliance with that provision and adopt and implement the action plan on early marriage.
C. Administration of justice and the rule of law
42. The country team recommended strengthening “justice for children” interventions and ensure the integration of child-friendly justice practices in relevant institutions, including prosecuting entities, courts, probation services and the police.
D. Right to privacy, marriage and family life
50. The country team noted that the Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development had developed a national action plan to eliminate child marriage and teenage pregnancies and was developing a national strategy on child protection.
51. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights expressed concern about the 5 million children under the age of 5 who were not being registered and requested that Uganda increase its efforts to ensure universal birth registration by, inter alia, revising the Birth and Death Registration Act as necessary. The country team recommended developing a civil registration policy and a national strategic plan for registering births and deaths.
H. Right to health
72. The country team noted that, while Uganda achieved Millennium Development Goal 4, having attained 54 per 1,000 live births, it did not meet the target of reducing maternal mortality to 131 per 100,000 live births by 2015. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recommended that Uganda intensify its efforts to reduce maternal and child mortality rates.
73. The same Committee urged Uganda to raise the budget allocated to the health sector with a view to reaching the benchmark agreed in the Abuja Declaration on HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Other Related Infectious Diseases. The country team recommended increasing investments in the health system and infrastructure and improving the equitable distribution and availability of reproductive and child health supplies.
76. The Committee also recommended that Uganda redouble its efforts to reduce the high rate of teenage pregnancies and ensure the availability and affordability of sexual and reproductive health services, in particular in rural areas.
I. Right to education
77. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights appreciated the strides to improve children’s enrolment and achieve gender parity in primary school. The country team recommended increasing equitable access, quality and sustainability of primary education.
78. UNESCO recommended that Uganda be encouraged to further develop policies promoting girls’ right to education, continue improving access to education for disadvantaged groups and increase the quality of the public education system.
79. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the country team expressed concern at the high rate of school dropouts and low transition rate of pupils from primary to secondary level, especially among girls. It recommended that Uganda implement plans aimed at providing support services for pregnant adolescents to pursue their education.
K. Persons with disabilities
82. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recommended that Uganda take measures to ensure inclusive education of children with disabilities, including through compulsory training of teachers (beyond special-education teachers), and barrier-free physical access to schools.
I. Information provided by the national human rights institution of the State under review accredited in full compliance with the Paris Principles
7. UHRC noted increased vulnerability of street children and challenges in the administration of juvenile justice including detention of children with adults and overcrowding in the remand and rehabilitation homes.
II. Information provided by other stakeholders
A. Background and framework
1. Scope of international obligations
19. JS29, JS18 and Uganda Child Rights NGO network (UCRNN) recommended ratifying and domesticating the Hague Convention on Inter-country Adoption and ratifying OP-CRC-IC.
2. Constitutional and legislative framework
23. JS8 recommended fast-tracking the implementation of the Domestic Violence Act of 2010. JS28 made similar recommendations, and suggested revising provisions in the Sexual Offences Bill, particularly those regarding marital rape. In compliance with recommendation 111.52, JS7 called upon the Government to ensure effective implementation of laws with regard to sexual and gender based violence, including the Domestic Violence Act 2010, and pass the Sexual Offences Bill by 2018. JS32 recommended allocating resources to the implementation of the National Strategy on Teenage Pregnancies and Child Marriages, the Domestic Violence Act, and the Female Genital Mutilation Act.
24. UCRNN recommended enacting legislation to prohibit violence against children in all settings and provide sufficient resources for the implementation of laws and policies by 2017. JS29 and JS18 recommended implementing the Children’s Act Amendment Bill of 2015.
3. Institutional and human rights infrastructure and policy measures
36. UCRNN recommended expediting the process of establishing a fully resourced Uganda National Children’s Authority, in order to ensure full implementation of the Children’s Amendment Act 2016.
C. Implementation of international human rights obligations, taking into account applicable international humanitarian law
1. Equality and non-discrimination
59. Under the Same Sun (UTSS) stated that discrimination, marginalization and violence plague the lives of Ugandans with albinism. Many children with albinism are abandoned. Mistaken beliefs about albinism have fuelled an illegal market in body parts across the region.
2. Right to life, liberty and security of the person
63. JS13 noted that incidents of death by mob justice continue to be on the rise. JC noted instances of child sacrifice linked with witchcraft and recommended Uganda to implement new legislation abolishing child sacrifices. JS18 recommended investigation and prosecution of all extra-judicial killings.
66. JS16 indicated that female genital mutilation (FGM) has persisted in some areas in north-eastern Uganda, and recommended increasing community education and awareness. JS7 urged the Government to ensure prevention of FGM by establishing a body under the Ministry of Gender by 2018, in charge of coordinating the implementation of the FGM Act 2010.
67. UCRNN stated that about 2.4 million children are engaged in exploitative child labour, out of which 1.7 million are below 14 years of age.
68. JS29 noted that a national action plan, programmes and activities to reduce child labour has been slow in addressing its root causes. According to JS29, as many as 40% of children aged 5-15 are part of the working population.
71. JS11 urged Uganda to intensify prevention and elimination of child marriages through child protection law.
3. Administration of justice, including impunity, and the rule of law
73. JS13 noted that juveniles continue to be detained with adults, and that there is only one rehabilitation centre for juveniles. Conditions in detention facilities are inadequate for the rehabilitation of juvenile offenders. JS13 recommended adopting policies and standards to promote child correction and rehabilitation.JS18 and UCRNN recommended building more juvenile remand homes and adopting a rehabilitation oriented approach. UCRNN recommended taking appropriate interventions to address the plight of children who are in prison with their mothers.
78. HRW reported incidents where police threaten, beat and extort children who live on the street and urged investigations into all allegations of violence against street children.
4. Right to privacy, marriage and family life
80. JS11 urged Uganda to revise the birth registration procedure to ensure universal registration, especially for children born out of wedlock or outside the country, and to increase awareness on the importance of birth registration. JS18 and JS29 made similar recommendations.
5. Freedom of religion or belief, expression, association and peaceful assembly, and right to participate in public and political life
88. JS24 recommended that the Government should ensure that its communication surveillance laws, policies and practices adhere to international human rights law and standards, and that all interception activities are subject to prior judicial authorisation. JS1 recommended revising regulations in communication and stopping targeted surveillance; put in place measures that bridge the rural-urban as well as the gender divide by making Internet accessible to women, children and the rural populace. JS20 made similar recommendations.
7. Right to social security and to an adequate standard of living
96. JS29 indicated that 24% of children live in extreme poverty, and that the low budget for child-related issues remains one of the biggest barriers to realising children’s rights. JS19 recommended increasing the coverage of social protection for vulnerable women and girls, and child heads of households.JS29 recommended increasing budgetary allocation to child protection services, and ensuring complaint mechanisms accessible to girls and boys, including children with disabilities.
8. Right to health
101. Reproductive Health Uganda (RHU) stated that maternal mortality is the leading cause of death among women of childbearing age in Uganda. During the first UPR, the Government accepted recommendations to continue to work towards reducing the high maternal mortality. ADF International made a similar observation, and recommended improving the health care system infrastructure, and devoting more resources to maternal health. JS28 made similar observations and recommendations, as well as JS29. JS9 agreed, especially in the context of unsafe abortion.
102. JS19 stated that reproductive health is still the single most urgent health issue confronting women of child-bearing age. JS7 and JS32 called upon the Government to fulfil their commitment to enhance access to reproductive health services by increasing the health budget to reach 15 percent, by 2019, in line with the Abuja Declaration. JS8 recommended Uganda to ensure universal access to family planning services. Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevoelkerung (DSW) recommended advancing the quality of health services.
104. JS16 stated that the association of unsafe abortion with high levels of maternal mortality and morbidity is linked to the failure by the State to provide health services. JS 32 noted that the incidence of unsafe abortions is increasing, accounting for over 1500 deaths among girls and women per year. JS8 urged Uganda to enforce safe legal access to abortion, including removing legislative barriers that prohibit family planning. JS9 made a similar recommendation for decriminalizing abortion. JS16 and JS28 recommended expanding the circumstances under which safe abortion is legally sought, to include cases of sexual assault, rape and incest. ADF International recommended focussing on measures to reduce recourse to abortion.
105. EGPAF recommended Uganda to repeal or amend the criminalisation of HIV transmission, to implement early treatment and testing for children living with HIV, and to increase girls’ attendance of secondary schools. JS8, JS9 and JS28 also recommended de-criminalising the transmission of HIV.
106. JS9 and HRNJ stated that implementation of national adolescent focused health policies has yet to be realised, resulting in a rise in maternal mortality and higher HIV/AIDS rates among adolescents. JS28 recommended implementing concrete policies on sexual and reproductive health, and making information and services available to the public. JS8, JS9and HRNJ made similar recommendations focusing on adolescents and youth. EGPAF similarly agreed in order to eliminate mother-to-child HIV transmission.
9. Right to education
108. JS30 and JS29 highlighted declining budgetary allocations to the educational sector in real terms, general low quality of public education with some regional disparities, lacking literacy skills among pupils, high rates of teacher absenteeism and high teacherpupil ratios. JS30 recommended progressively increasing financial investment in the public education sector. JS18, JS26 and ISER recommended allocating 20% of the national budget to education.
109. JS29 recommended scaling up basic education support to vulnerable groups, investing in training, recruiting and retaining more teachers in disadvantaged areas, building infrastructure, and supporting poor households to address risk factors that render children vulnerable to child labour. JS18 and ISER made similar recommendations.
110. JS25 noted that illiteracy is still a widespread problem in Uganda, especially affecting women, and recommended promoting traditional literacy with ICT components in schools and educational centres. JS25 recommended promoting measures to advance women’s and girls’ participation in the society.
111. JS3 noted that transgender persons have been victims of bullying in school, and several have been dismissed from school because of their sexual orientation and gender identity.JS3 recommended providing training to teachers and school management committees on how to not discriminate against students identifying as transgender.
112. HRNJ recommended Uganda to increase funding for youth vocational training to create skills development and job opportunities, especially in agriculture. JS18 made similar recommendations.
113. CCFU noted that there is no instructional material or personnel trained in minority groups’ languages in schools, and recommended taking affirmative action in this regard.
114. JS29 also noted rampant use of corporal punishment in schools and Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children (GIEACPC) recommended Uganda to prohibit all corporal punishment of children in all settings.
115. ISER proposed law and accountability practices that should regulate private education providers.JS18 made similar recommendations.
11. Persons with disabilities
118. JS10 urged Uganda to promote affirmative action for children with disabilities, to recruit special needs teachers and physiotherapists, and to improve the lives of persons with mental disabilities.
13. Migrants, refugees and asylum seekers
129. JS18 suggested Uganda to consider providing programs that guarantee higher education to refugee students.JS10 urged Uganda to guarantee refugee children access to education, especially higher education and vocation learning.
130. JS10 recommended protecting refugee children from scam adoptions, establishing separate holding centres and family courts, and placing special protection for unaccompanied minors.
14. Internally displaced persons
131. JS21 noted that thousands of young women were abducted by the Lord’s Resistance Army and were sexually abused: they and their children now face stigma and reintegration problems. JS18 and JS21 urged Uganda to implement a comprehensive and gender sensitive reparations program.
132. JS21 also urged Uganda to take measures to eliminate discrimination against formerly abducted girls and their children born of conflict-related sexual violence, including strengthening social protection, investigating all cases of discrimination and offering appropriate remedies. JS18 made similar recommendations.
The recommendations listed below enjoy the support of Uganda:
115.12 Continue efforts through education and awareness-raising initiatives to improve the effective implementation of the laws on domestic violence and on female genital mutilation, and eliminate discrimination based on sex from legislation (Paraguay);
115.14 Enact legislation prohibiting violence against children in all settings (Zambia);
115.17 Consider ratifying the International Labour Organization (ILO) Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189), and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Philippines);
115.18 Adopt legislation that prevents discrimination against women, eliminates female genital mutilation/cutting and prevents forced marriages (Australia);
115.21 Amend the Children (Amendment) Act in line with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, aiming at mainstreaming the rights of children with disabilities across all programmes, and provide the necessary resources for their protection (Portugal);
115.36 Accelerate the establishment and functioning of the National Children’s Authority to prevent and combat violence, exploitation and other degrading practices (Spain);
115.37 Put in place strategies and implement the action plan to more effectively combat child, early and forced marriage (Sierra Leone);
115.38 Adopt and implement the plan of action against early marriages (Djibouti);
115.51 Continue with efforts to advance the rights of women and combat discrimination against women and girls, in particular to achieve equal access to education and prevent girls dropping out of school (Mexico);
115.54 Take appropriate measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and girls as well as persons with albinism (Madagascar);
115.55 Continue to protect girls from all forms of discrimination and promote girls’ rights and access to education (Pakistan);
115.58 Continue to promote and protect the rights of children (Syrian Arab Republic);
115.60 Establish an information and prevention strategy to combat the discrimination against and persecution of the albino population in the country, as well as protection for these persons, in particular for albino children (Mexico);
115.64 Intensify efforts to combat all forms of violence against women and girls (Georgia);
115.65 Step up efforts to raise national awareness to combat all forms of violence against women and girls (Timor-Leste);
115.66 Strengthen efforts to eliminate violence against women and girls and harmful practices (Slovenia);
115.67 Carry out additional national awareness-raising campaigns to combat violence against women and girls (Togo);
115.70 Continue to promote the protection of the rights of women and children (Nigeria);
115.71 Strengthen the fight against violence against children and the care of abandoned children (Algeria);
115.72 Take concrete measures to ensure effective implementation of the Act prohibiting female genital mutilation, including by investigating relevant incidents and prosecuting perpetrators as well as by rehabilitating victims (Cyprus);
115.73 Step up the fight against all harmful traditional practices, inter alia by effectively enforcing the Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act in all parts of the country and by increasing the human and financial resources of the Anti-Human Sacrifice and Trafficking Task Force (Czechia);
115.74 Implement and enforce the law against female genital mutilation as soon as possible (Spain); 115.75 Provide adequate resources for the full implementation of domestic laws that prohibit harmful traditional practices against women (Philippines);
115.76 Eliminate all harmful traditional practices and stereotypes, including female genital mutilation (Botswana);
115.77 Take concrete measures to eradicate harmful practices against women and children, especially children with albinism (Panama);
115.78 Strengthen programmes and plans to eradicate effectively child labour in the short term (Chile); 115.79 Strengthen efforts to ensure eradication of child labour by introducing penalties for violating the provisions on employing children and young persons (Maldives);
115.80 Continue to develop strategies to protect children, including measures to ensure that children living in the street and in foster care institutions have the right to live in a family and have access to health and education (Chile);
115.84 Prioritize implementation of the Child Justice Strategy and the National Diversion Guidelines for children in the criminal justice system (South Africa);
115.85 Separate juveniles from adults in detention and rehabilitation centres (Zambia);
115.91 Strengthen police training on how to investigate sexual and genderbased violence, including against children, and ensure that perpetrators of these acts are appropriately prosecuted (United States of America);
115.98 Develop a national action plan to eliminate child marriage (Maldives);
115.99 Exert further efforts to ensure that all children born in the national territory are registered (Sudan);
115.100 Adopt measures to reduce the number of children without birth registration (Angola);
115.115 Ensure a sufficient health budget, full and equal access to health services, in particular adolescent, reproductive and family planning services and relevant education (Ukraine);
115.119 Intensify efforts to reduce maternal and child mortality rates (Nepal);
115.122 Implement the Abuja Declaration on Roll Back Malaria in Africa with particular emphasis on concluding the enactment of the National Health Insurance Bill to cover vulnerable groups, such as those in the informal sector, low-income households, people with disabilities, the elderly and children (Kenya);
115.125 Improve access to education, in particular in marginalized areas (Algeria);
115.126 Continue increasing the enrolment rate of children in primary schools and achieve equal gender opportunities, particularly in setting up policies that strengthen the rights of girls in education and provide education to all those who have been deprived (vulnerable groups), and improve the quality of the public education system (Libya);
115.127 Reinforce policies that favour access to education in rural areas (Syrian Arab Republic);
115.128 Take further measures to improve children’s enrolment, access, quality and sustainability of education, especially for girls (Ukraine);
116.4 Ratify the Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in respect of Intercountry Adoption (Madagascar);
116.17 Strengthen the juvenile justice system, in particular by ensuring the designation of specialized courts and judges, which would apply procedures that take into account the specific needs of children (Belgium).
The recommendations below did not enjoy the support of Uganda and would thus be noted:
116.2 Fully implement school health policies and the policy on adolescent health to provide reproductive health education for adolescents and prevent teenage pregnancy (Germany);
117.39 Ratify the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Panama);