A compilation of extracts featuring child-rights issues from the reports submitted to the second Universal Periodic Review. There are extracts from the 'National Report', the 'Compilation of UN Information' and the 'Summary of Stakeholder's Information'. Also included is the final report and the list of accepted and rejected recommendations.
South Sudan - Twenty-Sixth Session - 2016
III. Follow-up from previous UPR recommendations
10. Also the Government has enacted the Child law and adhered to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its two Optional Protocols and endorsed the Paris Commitments to protect children from unlawful recruitment or use by the national army and other organized forces or armed groups.
22. The Government, with assistance from the international partners, prepared Human Rights Agenda and Action Plan and identified general areas of reforms, including training of judicial personnel, public prosecutors, police and prisons officers in dealing with cases involving vulnerable groups such as juvenile offenders, women and mentally ill. The Government established in the judiciary Juvenile Remand Review with aim of reducing the amount of time children spend in pre-trial detention and also introduced the United Nations Rule of Law Indicators in all activities of the judiciary to measure effectiveness and performance of the trained judicial personnel.
28. Also, in 2012, the Government with the United Nations and UNICEF signed a Revised Action Plan with aim of preventing recruitment into the army of any person under the age of 18 years. As a result of signature of the Action Plan by the Government, in 2013 alone, 821 boys and girls were released from the national army and 540 from militias groups operating within the country. Further, the Government established within the army a Child Protection Units which facilitated access by the United Nations, UNICEF and South Sudan Disarmament and Demobilization Commission personnel to monitor, report, verify and register any recruitment of children by the army.
29. Lately in April 2015, the Government, UNMISS and UNICEF demobilized and released 36 children associated with the national army in Malakal, Upper Nile state and identified, screened, demobilized and released other 37 children in Warrap state. In May 2016, the Government, UNMISS and UNICEF identified, screened, demobilized and released 20 children associated with the armed groups in cities of Mayom and Mankein in Unity state.
30. Under arrangement with the national army, the UNMISS seconded an International Child Protection Specialist to the army Child Protection Unit, with aim of providing an ongoing technical support and trained 1,043 army Child Protection Unit officers. In August 2013, the army Chief of General Staff issued Punitive Orders prohibiting recruitment and use of children by the army and mandated referral of all violations of child rights to the Military Justice for prosecution.
36. In 2011–2015, the Government with support from United Nations Police (UNPOL), developed Strategic Training Plan, which provided foundation for long-term institutional development to improve performance of the Police Service. Under the Strategic Training Plan, 300 UNPOL officers were co-deployed with South Sudan National Police with aim of transferring knowledge and skills. Also UNPOL provided human rights training modules for police cadets at the National Police Academy based in Rejaf, Central Equatoria state. Further, similar human rights trainings were provided by UNPOL, including training on monitoring of police detention centers, respect for human rights, especially with regard to resolving cases of arbitrary arrest or detention, prevention of violence against women and children and training of 5,100 police officers in English language literacy. As a result of the trainings, by UNMISS and other international partners, the Government established Special Units chaired by female police officer to deal with issues related to women and children, especially on issues of gender based violence (GBV). In 2011, the Government adopted Police Reform Plan which its main objective was to develop and increase capacities of the police personnel and broadening of their activities across the country.
H. Prisons Service
38. The Constitution provides for establishment of professional Prisons Service at national and state levels, with mandate to manage, maintain, operate and treat prisoners humanely. The prisons Service personnel terms and condition of service are regulated by South Sudan Prison Service Act, 2011. From onset, the Government has undertaken measures of training Prisons Service personnel and improving detention conditions of the prisoners by reducing overcrowdings in the prisons facilities by establishing separate prison cells for men and women and juvenile offenders. Another step taken by the Government is to separate holding of pre-trial detainees from convicted prisoners. Prison feeding, health care and sanitation have also been progressively improved.
39. The Government has initiated low-cost reforms efforts to lower number of pre-trial cases and formed a National Prison Department Committee to develop strategies for meeting of international prisons standards. With support from international partners, the Government constructed two prisons at Rweto in Eastern Equatoria and Jonglei and renovated some central prisons in Juba, Wau, Malakal, Rumbek, Aweil, Torit and Yambio and proposed project for construction of new prisons in Bentiu and Kwajok. All main prison facilities have health center facility at least with a doctor or medical assistance. In an effort to improve condition of juvenile offenders, the Government has allocated to the Prisons Service a piece of land in Juba for construction of reformatory school, however, construction of the reformatory facility has been delayed by the recent conflict in the country. In another effort to rehabilitate convicted prisoners, the Government with support from the international partners, opened fully-equipped prison workshops for training of inmates on various vocational skills in Juba, Yambio and Wau central prison.
40. During and after the colonial period till its independence in 2011, South Sudan was a neglected region of the Sudan, with limited number of prisons facilities. Overcrowding in its prison facilities and high level of illiteracy remain a major challenges. Management of juvenile, women and mentally ill inmates, lack of means of transportation, trainings of the prisons personnel, development of new infrastructures and institutions and access to medical care by the inmates are other challenges facing the Prisons Service. Although the Government has recently trained and graduated its first batch of prisons officers, there is still need for additional trainings and technical assistance and financial resources to build new prison facilities so as to overcome the challenges of overcrowdings still prevailing in some of the prison facilities in the country.
C. Protection of women and children
51. The Constitution provides that women will be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men; have the right to equal pay for equal work; participate equally with men in public life and promote women participation in public life and their representation in the legislative and executive organs by at least 25% as an affirmative action to redress imbalances created by history, customs and traditions. The Government established Ministry of Gender, Child and Social Welfare with mission of promoting and protecting human rights of vulnerable groups, women and children, elderly and persons with special needs. The Ministry, in collaboration with state Ministries of Social Development and civil society, work together to ensure appropriate measures for elimination or mitigation of injustices and equitable distribution of resources. The National Ministry of Gender, Child and Social Welfare also prepared a Gender Policy Framework that lays out programmes for the whole country. Under the policy, principle of gender mainstreaming is given prominent focus in which government and private sector institutions are to work towards elimination of all forms of discrimination against women and vulnerable groups.
52. In an effort to promote and protect women and children and vulnerable groups human rights, the Government has enacted laws and acceded to a number of regional and international conventions, including International Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; African Union Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child and Southern Sudan Child Act, 2008. In addition the Government adopted National Gender Policy, 2013; Public Service Gender Mainstreaming and Sensitization Manual, 2013; National Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for Prevention, protection and Response to Gender Based Violence, 2014; National Action Plan for implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution No. 1325 (2015–2020) and Policy on children without parental care.
53. Since South Sudan independence in 2011, significant equal treatment, promotion, protection and respect for women human rights have emerged in the country. Women have taken an active role in the society but illiteracy rate as high as 84 to 86% has been the major challenge affecting women equal participation in the public life. On the basis of United Nations Security Council Resolution No.1325, gender awareness and peace forums were held nationwide. In August, 2012, the Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Army (SPLA) with support from UNMISS, undertook a gender-mainstreaming training. In another effort to promote girl-child education, UNICEF and the National Ministry of General Education facilitated and launched a National Strategic Plan on girl-child education which was disseminated nationwide. Through media and public events, advocacy efforts by the Government and international partners to increase number of girl-child enrolment in schools is ongoing.
54. The President of the Republic, with the Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary General on Sexual Violence in Conflict, signed a commitment to prevent sexual violence against women and children, including development and strengthening of laws, issuance of clear orders to all defence and security forces, ensure accountability in accordance with international standards for sexual violence crimes and strengthening protection of all internally displaced persons.
56. Perpetuation of gender inequalities, biases and discrimination which translate into systematic violations of the rights of women, including incidences of gender based violence (GBV) such as sexual exploitation and abuse, early and forced marriage of girl-child and domestic violence continue to be a challenge to the Government efforts to protect and promote women and child rights. Although the Southern Sudan Child Act, 2008 provides for marriageable age of 18 years yet many girls are married off before that age of 18, especially in rural areas where presence of government institutions is limited.
57. The adoption of the National Gender Policy; Public Service Gender Mainstreaming and Sensitization Manual; National Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for Prevention, protection and Response to Gender Based Violence; National Action Plan for implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution No. 1325 (2015–2020) and Policy on Children without Parental Care, are prove of the Government efforts to eradicate harmful customs and traditions which places women at lower scale level of the society. The Government has established fourteen (14) Special Protection Units (SPU) at various police stations in Juba and other major cities to enable women, girls and children, report cases of gender based violence (GBV). In addition, the Government with international partners, established women Friendly Spaces in the country so that women and girls are encouraged to discuss issues related to their welfare and training on necessary social skills. The Government, with support from some financial international partners, advanced financial grants to women with aim of carrying out group-businesses. Before the 16 December 2013 conflict, the Government made plans for establishment of women’s bank and women’s empowerment trust fund with view of eliminating women inability to access capital credits and other financial services.
58. Lack of funding, long civil war and the entrenched inequalities impacted negatively on the lives of people, particularly women, children, persons of special needs and other vulnerable groups. To eradicate imbalances in the society, especially against women and children, the Government is seeking technical and financial assistance from the relevant international partners so that it can implement its plans, policies and laws.
E. Food security
65. Despite the efforts being undertaken by the Government to improve food security in the country, majority of the population still lives below the poverty line. This is caused by lack of rains, insecurity and high rate of unemployment among the youth. Those affected much by the poverty are the women and children from the areas most affected by the civil war IDPs and returnees.
67. The Government has made the primary education compulsory throughout the country and established an Alternative Educational System which is to provide basic adult, accelerated learning programmes, community girl schools programme, pastoralist education programme and intensive English course to the children demobilised from the army and other militias groups operating in country. The demobilised children are assessed and placed into the available learning programmes based on their needs. The demobilized children of ages between 17 and 18 years old and did not have educational background are placed in vocational and life skills programmes.
VIII. Request for capacity building and technical assistance
77. The Government of the Republic of South Sudan is soliciting support in the following areas:
(h) Support in empowerment of women socially by enlightening them to play an effective role in combating child marriage and inheritance of wife of deceased male relative.
I. Background and framework
A. Scope of international obligations
1. International human rights treaties
2. The United Nations country team recommended the completion of the ratification process of the two Optional Protocols to CRC, on the involvement of children in armed conflict and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography,12 and the ratification of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa.
C. Institutional and human rights infrastructure and policy measures
9. The country team noted that the establishment of the independent children’s commission, which should investigate violations of children’s rights and monitor implementation of the Child Act, 2008, was still pending.
B. Right to life, liberty and security of person
28. UNMISS reported that violations and abuses of human rights, as well as violations of international humanitarian law, had been committed, possibly amounting to war crimes and crimes against humanity. Such violations had included extrajudicial and targeted killings, abductions and enforced disappearances, sexual and gender-based violence, including rape, the massive displacement of civilian populations, the destruction of means of livelihood through the deliberate burning and destruction of homes and crops as well as the looting of livestock, and forced recruitment, including of children. Additionally, there had been targeting of and attacks against United Nations personnel, premises and humanitarian assets since December 2013.
38. The Special Rapporteur on internally displaced persons noted that family separations and child protection issues were arising constantly. The country team made similar observations and added that displacement had led to high rates of psychosocial distress. It was likely that over 800,000 children were in need of psychosocial support.
39. The Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict indicated that all gains made by the SPLA in implementing the action plan signed with the United Nations to end the recruitment and use of children in conflict had been erased with the conflict that erupted in December 2013.
40. The Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict expressed deep concern at continuing violations committed against children by all parties to the conflict, particularly killing and maiming, recruiting and using them for the conflict, and sexual violence. It emphasized that the SPLA, government security forces and allied militias accounted for the vast majority of these violations in 2015.68
41. The High Commissioner recommended that the Transitional Government of National Unity stop and prevent violations and abuses of children’s rights, including by actively preventing and combatting the recruitment and use of children in hostilities by parties to the conflict.
E. Right to social security and to an adequate standard of living
64. In August 2016, the Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, after his visit to South Sudan, stated that some 4.8 million people across the country were facing severe food insecurity and some 250,000 children were severely malnourished.
67. The country team stated that South Sudan had an exceptionally high teenage pregnancy rate, attributable to the high rate of child and forced marriage (45 per cent of girls are married before the age of 18) and the limited access of young people to youth- friendly sexual and reproductive health services. Adolescents and youth were the age groups most affected by HIV, with 56.9 per cent of new infections occurring among persons between 10 and 34 years of age.
G. Right to education
68. The country team noted that schools continued to be used by parties to the conflict for military purposes in different parts of the country.
69. The High Commissioner noted that at least 50 per cent of all children did not attend school, and only 39 per cent of those who did were girls.
70. The High Commissioner indicated that the General Education Act, of 2012, provided for free basic instruction for all. Given the extremely low levels of literacy and the poor access to basic education, the implementation of this act was crucial.106 The ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations made a similar recommendation and requested South Sudan to take the necessary measures to increase the school enrolment rates and decrease dropout rates at the primary level.
H. Migrants, refugees and asylum seekers
72. UNHCR indicated that the overall refugee protection context, particularly in Unity State and Upper Nile State and at the Yida settlement, continued to be compromised by the presence of armed elements and combatants. Their presence was associated with challenges in ensuring refugees’ physical security, particularly child protection, in ensuring the maintenance of law and order, and in deterring voluntary and forced recruitment and sexual and gender-based violence.
I. Internally displaced persons
76. According to UNMISS, the parties to the conflict frequently disregarded safe havens. As thousands of civilians left their homes and communities to seek safety, the parties to the conflict attacked hospitals, religious institutions and areas where internally displaced persons had gathered. Schools and clinics had been occupied by military forces.
3. Institutional and human rights infrastructure and policy measures
9. Joint Submission 1 (JS1) noted that an Independent Child Commission with the ability to investigate complaints made by any person on child rights violations and to monitor compliance of the CRC had not been established, despite a provision to do so in the Child Act of 2008.
10. JS1 stated that there was no birth registration policy or system in place. Instead, the Government issued age assessment certificates, which had many implications for the enjoyment of children’s rights, including in the establishment of a minimum age for marriage, minimum age for criminal responsibility and access to essential services, including health, education and protection.
2. Right to life, liberty and security of the person
20. AI stated that, in the context of the internal armed conflict that erupted in December 2013, both government and opposition forces had committed crimes under international law that might amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity. They had attacked civilians sheltering in hospitals and places of worship, executed captured fighters, abducted and arbitrarily detained civilians, burned down homes, damaged and destroyed medical facilities, looted public and private property as well as food stores and humanitarian aid, and recruited children to serve in their armed forces. Parties to the conflict had also regularly attacked, detained, harassed and threatened humanitarian aid workers and UNMISS staff.
39. HRW noted that almost half of girls aged 15 to 19 were married, of which 17 per cent had been married before the age of 15. Proxy detentions, whereby the wives or children of the accused were detained until the suspect surrendered, had also been known to be frequently used. Domestic disputes were regularly resolved in traditional courts that often applied discriminatory customs against women.
40. JS2 recommended that South Sudan increase the number of women in leadership positions in the army and the police as a basic step towards ending gender-based violence.
41. JS8 stated that child abduction was common among some nomadic and pastoral communities, which remained one of the major reasons for inter-communal clashes.
42. HRW indicated that, although South Sudan had signed an action plan with the United Nations in March 2012 to end the use of child soldiers and order their release from SPLA, forced recruitment and use of minors by the army continued. Since the beginning of the conflict in 2013, both government and opposition forces had forcibly recruited and used thousands of children. Despite promises by the government and rebel forces, thousands of children had yet to be demobilized.
43. JS1 recommended that the Government immediately cease the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict in compliance with their obligations under international humanitarian law and international human rights law, immediately and unconditionally release all children associated with armed forces and groups, and ensure their safe return to their families and access to education and psychosocial well-being. JS2 made a similar recommendation.
3. Administration of justice, including impunity, and the rule of law
57. JS4 stated that children were arrested without any warrant and then later transferred to the Juvenile Home on remand. Most of them were not informed of reasons for their arrest and self-incriminated whilst in detention. Their parents or legal guardians were often not informed of their arrest/detention due to logistical and administrative challenges faced by the authorities.
58. JS1 stated that the Child Act 2008 contained the legal framework for the establishment of a specialized juvenile justice system, however, that no such system was in place. Only one specialized court could be found in Rumbek, Lakes State.
6. Right to health
80. JS8 stated that the cholera outbreak further threatened the lives of children. Malaria had also been in an alarming increase for children during their displacement.
81. JS8 stated that children suffering from acute malnutrition had doubled since the outbreak of the crisis in December 2013.
7. Right to education
84. HRW stated that schools continued to be attacked and occupied throughout the country, by both parties to the conflict.
85. According to JUBILEE, 40 per cent of men were literate, while only about 15 per cent of women were literate. Furthermore, many teachers had never completed primary school themselves.106
86. JS1 stated that lack of school structures and lack of school in some parts of the country continued to present major barriers in accessing education for the majority of children. Moreover, according to JS1, children had reported widespread abuse and mistreatment by their teachers, including sexual harassment.
87. FADA indicated that primary schools charged some fees for pupils, which parents with low income level could not afford. JS3 recommended that South Sudan provide free education for all children.
88. WWU noted a high percentage of uneducated women in Warrap due to various reasons: early and forced marriage; removal of girls from school for fear of getting pregnant; and keeping girls at home as care givers. Only a few women were educated but in Arabic not English. Such women found it difficult to find employment in the various sectors. WLPoC advocated for women’s greater access to education, to enable them to participate in society and the economy on equal terms with men.
8. Persons with disabilities
90. JS9 continued that access to education for persons with disabilities depended on a range of factors, such as the type and/or degree of impairment, socio-economic status of a family, physical accessibility of schools, distance, and attitudes.
The following recommendations enjoy the support of South Sudan:
126.2 Remove from its law and practice all civil and criminal provisions constituting discrimination against women and girls (Paraguay);
126.3 Adopt a comprehensive law addressing all forms of violence against women and girls (Belgium);
126.37 Develop a comprehensive strategy to eliminate discrimination against women and girls in the area of education, to prevent the increase of illiteracy among females (Saudi Arabia);
126.38 Take appropriate measures to put an end to all forms of discrimination against women and girls, as well as to widespread sexual violence, and also to the recruitment and use of children in conflict (Madagascar);
126.40 Continue its effort to protect the rights of women, children and vulnerable groups (Indonesia);
126.45 Undertake all necessary measures to eliminate discrimination and abuses against women and girls (Georgia);
126.47 Strengthen efforts to prevent discrimination and violence against women and girls, including by eradicating harmful practices such as child, early and forced marriage (Slovenia);
126.48 Take effective action to eliminate the phenomenon of female genital mutilation (Cyprus);
126.49 Stop and prevent violations and abuses of children’s rights, including by actively preventing and combating the recruitment and use of children in hostilities by parties to the conflict (Slovenia);
126.50 Cease the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict (Slovakia);
126.51 Further improve the promotion and protection of children`s rights and prevent the recruitment of child soldiers (Ukraine);
126.52 Redouble efforts aimed at stopping the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict (Djibouti);
126.53 Issue clear, public orders to end the recruitment of child soldiers, ensure their swift release and investigate and prosecute the commanders responsible. Ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict (Germany);
126.54 Work for the social reintegration of child soldiers, refugees and displaced persons who have opted to return to their original location (Senegal);
126.55 Ensure the safe return of demobilized child soldiers to their families and ensure their access to education (Slovakia);
126.56 Promote the guarantee of the human rights of children and elderly people affected by the internal conflict, including family reunification (Colombia);
126.72 Take further steps to provide access to education for all citizens, in particular in rural areas (Sudan);
126.73 Implement the Convention on the Rights of the Child through the 2012 General Education Act, to enable all children to join school (Kenya);
126.74 Take all appropriate measures to protect children’s rights, especially by ensuring their access to primary education (Italy);
127.11 Take the necessary measures for the inclusion of human rights in educational programmes (Togo);
127.21 Continue implementing affirmative measures aimed at eliminating every kind of discrimination against women and girls (Panama);
127.37 Establish a strategy to improve the existing mechanisms for reporting cases of sexual and gender-based violence against women and girls and to ensure access to justice for victims (Mexico);
127.41 Effectively implement the General Education Act, in particular by taking measures to improve school enrolment rates (Belgium);
127.42 Take measures to further reduce women’s illiteracy rate and increase girls’ school enrolment rate (China);
128.15 Ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict and step up efforts to protect children and prevent their recruitment into the armed forces or armed groups and reintegrate them into civilian life in line with the Paris Commitments to protect children from unlawful recruitment or use by armed forces or armed groups and the Principles and Guidelines on Children Associated with Armed Forces or Armed Groups (the Paris Principles) (Czechia);
128.16 Ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict and prosecute perpetrators of violations committed by all parties to the conflict (Serbia);
128.17 Complete the ratification process for the two Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, on the involvement of children in armed conflict and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, and for the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (Albania);
128.20 Ratify the Convention against Discrimination in Education (Paraguay);
128.36 Set up permanent and sustainable programmes of education and training on human rights for public servants, in particular members of the armed forces and the judicial sector, with a focus on protecting vulnerable groups (Colombia);
128.52 Prevent and put an end to human rights violations and abuses suffered by children, strengthen measures aimed at ensuring an effective end to their recruitment and their release (Argentina);
128.55 Immediately live up to its commitment to end the use of child soldiers and minors in armed conflicts (Denmark);
128.56 Take measures to put an end to the recruitment of children by the armed forces or armed groups (France);
128.57 Strengthen ongoing efforts to end the recruitment of child soldiers and ensure the release of all children associated with armed groups (Maldives);
128.58 Stop and prevent violations and abuses of children’s rights, including by actively preventing and combating the recruitment and use of children in hostilities (Portugal);
128.59 Adopt measures to restrict the recruitment of children in the conflict and to ensure their demobilization and integration into society. Pursue and punish all those responsible for violations of the human rights of children, in particular for killings and mutilations (Chile);
128.60 Take the necessary steps to prevent the recruitment of girls and boys by the army and other armed forces, and put in place a mechanism for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of girls and boys who have been involved in the armed conflict (Mexico);
128.66 Take all necessary measures to safeguard the full enjoyment of human rights by women and girls, including by promptly and independently investigating all allegations of sexual and gender-based violence and bringing perpetrators of such crimes to justice, in accordance with international standards (Sweden);
128.67 Ensure that all forces, including any affiliated militia forces, immediately cease all violations and abuses of international humanitarian and human rights law, in particular against women and girls and including violations perpetrated by State security institutions, and end impunity by bringing the perpetrators to justice (Canada);
128.79 Take concrete measures to ensure better protection of civilians, in particular women and children, by supporting the setting up of a hybrid court and by investigating and prosecuting alleged serious violations of international law, including when perpetrated by its military personnel (Finland);
128.81 Implement an effective birth registration policy for the whole country in order to consolidate the rights of children (Central African Republic);
128.82 Ensure that birth registration is stepped up through an ongoing campaign and the efficient use of resources and that the right to sustainable nutrition, public health and basic education is secured for all children (Mexico);
128.95 Ensure access to safe and quality education for children (Slovakia).
The following recommendations did not enjoy the support of South Soudan:
128.34 Establish the independent children’s commission (Timor-Leste);
128.35 Establish, as rapidly as possible, the independent children’s commission responsible for investigating violations of children’s rights and monitoring the implementation of the 2008 Child Act (Paraguay);
128.44 Put an end to all violations of international humanitarian law and human rights committed in the context of the armed conflict and, in particular, take all necessary measures to immediately stop the abduction of children to make them child soldiers, unlawful killings, sexual violence, attacks against civilians, lootings and the destruction of property (Uruguay);
128.53 Stop the recruitment of child soldiers into both the armed forces and militias (Costa Rica);
128.54 Immediately cease recruiting child soldiers and ensure their rehabilitation (Australia).